Yoruba History

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Yoruba History

Àború Àboyè Àbosíse
Contrary to popular belief
the chakras are an African Concept

Yoruba History
   The Yoruba people, of which there is at the present time more than 25 million, occupies the western South corner of Nigeria, by all the edge of Dahomey and it extends until he himself Dahomey. At the east and the north, the Yoruba culture arrives at its limits in the Niger river. Nevertheless, ancestral cultures directly related to the Yorubas bloomed to the north of Niger (Map). The archaeological discoveries and the genetic studies indicate that the ancestors of the Yorubas can have lived in this territory from prehistory. Archaeological evidences indicate that a society proto-Yoruba with high technological and artistic levels, was living to the north of Niger in the first millenium on ours was, and they already had knowledge of the iron. The Ifa theology raises that the creation of the humanity occurred in the sacred city of Ile-Ife, where Oduduwacreated mainland of the water. Much later a unknown number migrated towards Ile Ife. In this point the western ones were sinergized with African Eastern and some hypotheses cradles in the similarity of the Egyptian sculptures and the found ones in the city been of Ife, indicate that the originating Yorubas can descend from the Oduduwa of Egypt and that these founded the first kingdoms. The Yorubas called themselves "the children of Oduduwa". These Yoruba city-kingdoms comprised of more than 25 kingdoms, all of them centralized. Of all of them, it is Ile-Ife, the universally recognized as most important. Is believed that its foundation dates from year 850. His eternal rival, the kingdom of Oyo, to the northwest of Ife, was based approximately towards the 1350 DC. The Oni (king) of Ife and the Alafin de Oyo still are considered as Yoruba kings and they respect them in Nigeria by the people. Other important kingdoms were Itsekiri, Ondo and Owo in the Southeastern, Ekiti and Ijesha to the northwest and the Egbado, Shabe, Ketu, Ijebu, and Awori in the southwest.
The Portuguese explorers “discovered” the Yoruba cities and their kingdoms in century XV, but cities such as Ife and Benin, among others, have been in their sites by hundreds of years before the European arrived. The kingdom of Oyo was based with the aid of the Portuguese arms. At the end of the 18th century takes place a civil war in which one of the sides obtains the support of the Fulani, that in year 1830 took control of the control of all the Oyo empire. The Fulani invasion pushed many Yoruba towards the south where the towns of Ibadan and Abeokuta were based. In 1888, with the aid of a British mediator, Yorubas and Fulanis signed an agreement by which they regained the control on its earth. In 1901 Yorubaland it is colonized officially by the British empire, who settle down an administrative system that maintains great part of the structure of Yoruba government. During all these years Ife maintained its vital importance like sacred city, cradles of the Yorubas and it bases of its religious thought. Until recently time, the Yorubas was not considered to themselves like a single nation. Rather they were considered like citizens of Oyo, Benin, Yagba, among other cities. These cities considered the inhabitants of Lakes and Owo, for example, like foreign neighbors. The Yorubas kingdoms not only fought against the Dahometans, but also to each other. The Yoruba name was applied to all these people related linguistically and culturally by its neighbors of the north, the Hausas. The typical old Yoruba cities, were urban centers with farms to his around that they extended by dozens of miles or more. Oyo and Benin were founded by kings of Ife or their descendants. Benin directly obtained its ritual knowledge of Ife, and the religious system of Ifa divination expanded from Ife not only through all the Yoruba territory, but that reached to everybody. A system of common Yoruba beliefs dominated the region from Niger, moving towards the east to the Gulf of Guinea in the south. It was not by accident that the Yoruba culture expanded through Atlantic until America. Hunters of European slaves captured million of African violently and they sent them in overloaded negreros boats towards America. Wars for slaves began from the kingdom of Dahomey against some of the Yorubas kingdoms, and similars wars between such Yorubas, took these wear prisoners as slaves available for their transportation towards America. Yorubas slaves were sent to English, French, Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the new world, and in a great part of these places, the Yorubas traditions survived with great force. In Cuba, Brazil, Haiti and Trinidad, the religious rites Yorubas, beliefs, music and myths are enthroned to the present time. In Haiti the Yorubas was called Anagos. Haitian religious activities gave an honor place to the rites and Yorubas beliefs, its pantheon includes numerous deities of Yoruba origin.
The slavery in the United States was very different from other colonized regions. The language and the culture of these captives were cruely eliminated, where the African received the capital punishment generally to exert their practices. In Cuba, it happened a process of mixing of the Yoruba religion with the catholic, giving rise to a new system, known as Rule of Osha or Santería, that is the one that with more force has extended to Latin America, the United States and Europe. This resurgence in popularity and interest of the adaptation of Yoruba and Ifa with the catholicism, arrived at the United States through the Puerto Ricans in the 40 ' s and the 50 ' s (which previously had received it from Cuba) and soon in the 60 ' s with the flow of Cuban refugees. In Cuba, the pantheon of the Yorubas deities has survived intact, next to a complex of rites, beliefs, music, dances and myths of Yoruba origin.
       Before we turn to Yoruba metaphysics, though, let’s look at a bit of the history. For here, too, we find something absolutely compelling. Tragedy and eventual triumph. How, over a period of roughly four hundred years, the Yoruba nation and Africa as a whole suffered under the brutal hand of the international slave trade. Up to 75 million human beings taken, torn from families and everything they knew and held dear, forced to cross the Atlantic in the dark bellies of ships, made to serve strange masters in the New World. Slavery in the United States was quite different from other colonized regions. In the U.S. chattel type slavery was the means where the language and culture was whipped and beat out of the African captives. In the U.S. throughout the Diaspora, the African generally received the death penalty for practicing his or her birthright. Today the culture has undergone a phenomenal surge in popularity and interest. Santeria, the adaptation of Yoruba and Ifa with Catholicism, came to the states first with Puerto Ricans in the forties and fifties and then with the flood of Cuban refugees in the sixties. In all of these places mentioned above, the pantheon of major Yoruba deities has survived virtually intact, along with a complex of rites, beliefs, music, dances and myths of Yoruba origin. It is no accident that the Yoruba cultural influence spread across the Atlantic to the Americas.  European slave hunters violently captured and marched untold millions of  Africans to their demise on over crowded slave ships bound for the Americas.  Slave wars launched by the kingdom of Dahomey against some of the Yoruba kingdoms, and slave wars between the Yoruba's themselves made war casualty Africans available for transportation to the Americas.   Yoruba slaves were sent to British, French, Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the New World, and in a number of these places Yourba traditions survived strongly. In Brazil, Cuba, Haiti, and Trinidad, Yoruba religious rites, beliefs, music and myths is evident even at this late day. In Haiti the Yoruba's were generally called Anagos. Afro-Haitian religious activities give Yoruba rites and beliefs an honored place, and the pantheon includes numerous deities of Yoruba origin. In Brazil, Yoruba religious activities are called Anago or Shango, and in Cuba they are designated Lucumi. Buddhism, Hinduism, and Taoism on the one hand; Islam, Judaism, and Christianity on the other. But now we take a look at a religion that escapes this neat scholarly divide of East and West. It’s also a culture that’s much older than all these others. Some anthropologists say that it’s been practiced for as many as eight thousand years, making it truly primal and aboriginal.Today we look at the Yoruba culture of West Africa and its many versions around the world: Candomble in Brazil, Santeria in Cuba, Shango in Trinidad and Tobago, the Ifa priesthood in Nigeria and the Americas. In all, there are between 75 and 100 million adherents of some version of Yoruba religion, placing it securely among the world’s top six global traditions. No less than this! But the basic pattern of Yoruba worship is underneath all of it. It’s all about raising up ashe, moving it, channeling it.
Yoruba Thelogy
  The Yoruba theology resides mainly in the believe of a one God, who created everything that exists. From Him came several energies who take care of every detail of the Universe, those are called by the Yoruban believers, Irunmole and Orishas.  In the Yoruba system of belief, before you're born you have already decided what is going to happen with your life, this happens through Ori, which decide what is going to be the main objective in the new life you're begining. Using the different energies of the Universe, we can achieve easily the needed balance to get to that final objective pre defined by ourselves, meaning living life in balance, with health, happiness and wealth.Once you come to the earthly plane, your body is formed by three elements: Emí (spirit), Orí (soul) and Ará (body). The Emí and the Orí live inside the Ará but separated. Orí has the knowledge and the wisdom of passed lifes, it keeps closed to ones consciousness until death. Emí allows us to our internal dialogue, it stores memories from this encarnation, and it goes aside from our consciousness when we incorporate the Orisha, then he goes out the Ará. When we die, Emí and Orí becomes one and leave the Ará who will transform in a dead body (Okú). Once they're only one energy they'll wait for the fate that will come to them, meaning returning to Aiyé transformed in an spirit (eggun) and wait for the reincarnation (Atúnwá), or if Aragbá Orún (Way to Orún), to get to the Ará Orún state (habitant of the Orún) with the Orishas. These state is only achieved after several reincarnations, until ones Emí has a state pure enough to become an habitant of Orún. Every dweller of Aiyé, according to their behaviour in life can be considered as an omoluabí or an ajogun. Those who broked the laws and had a despicable behaviour during life, become ajogun or dark spirits, among those are:
Iku: The Death. King of the Ajogun Arun: The disease Ofo: The greed Epe: The hatress.
Ewon: The selfishness Egba: The loneliness.
The omoluabí are those that were rightous in the life, but anyway commited some mistakes, they're considered kind spirits and can be adored as family ancestors. If your ancestors came from Africa, you have a personal stake in wanting to know more—to reclaim your heritage. Or perhaps you or your family came from Brazil or Cuba or Venezuela or other countries infused by some version of Yoruba spirituality—this religion is part of who you are, whatever our cultural heritage may be, Yoruba religion offers a richly spiritualized example of our Unitarian Universalist Seventh Principle of the Interdependent Web of All Existence. What connects us and interpenetrates us are the energies of divine beings known as Orisha, each with a unique identity and way; and then there’s the energies of our ancestors in spirit, the dead who are not dead but live with us still and connect us to our family past and family future. Richness and wisdom in this life consists in learning how to more consciously interact with this “ashe,” this energy, so that we as individuals and communities are put on the path of our destiny and we fulfill the purposes for which we were born. Fundamentally they are energy, they are ashe. But they are energy directed in certain ways, infusing nature and human life with order and pattern. Since all ashe has two aspects—a building up aspect and a breaking down aspect, a yin and a yang—each Orisha will manifest accordingly.
    The Yorubas named, identified and deified the energies of the nature and called them Orishas, nevertheless, despite its diversity of deities, is possible to be considered like a monotheist religion, since they consider Olodumare like the unique and omnipotente God. The Yoruba pantheon counts on 401 different deities. The Yoruba God, Olodumare or Olorun does not have an organized priesthood or temples in its honor, although it is invoked and its blessing is requested. The Yoruba religion affirms that when a person dies, its soul enters the kingdom of the ancestors from where, these continue having influence on the Earth. The Yoruba culture varied significantly from a kingdom to another one; the same deity could be masculine or feminine according to each town, is for that reason that the same deities have several ways or paths, according to as they were venerated, although in the end their essential characteristics are the same ones, of this form can occur the case that the characteristics of two Gods can be including in a single deity.
                                                     Yoruba Pantheon
                         * Oloddumare     * Olofi     * Olorun               * Orunmila    
Oloddumare is the unique, supreme, omnipotent and creative God of everything. Its name comes from the Yorùbá Olòdúmàré, which means (Lord to whom our eternal destiny goes). Olodumare is the material and spiritual manifestation of all the existing one. It is not in direct bonding with the men, but through their other form, Olorún (directly) or Olofi (indirectly). It's not received, not offered, and has no necklaces.
The Yorubas represents it in a güiro with two halves, in the superior side the high astral states and in the inferior the earth. Whenever it is mentioned its name one must touch the floor and kiss the dust track of the fingers.The Yorubas does not have statues nor altars to represent the God Olodumare. The Supreme Being Omnipotente and Primordial, author of the destinies of each living thing, father of all the Orishas and the life can be experienced in different forms, is for that reason that it does not have emblems nor signals to represent it.
In the Cuban Ifa-Osha Rule the Supreme Being is pure and therefore the white color is associated to him. For this a circle can be drawn, with ashe, or with efun (husk) and within can be a symbol of the eternity, then scatter water like libation and in center to locate a nut of kola or wool of cotton. This fact and prayer are said to Olodumare.
Olorun is the second manifestation of Olodumare, coming of the Yoruba Òlórúnm, Owner of the Orún (sky). Olorun is the one that is in direct bonding with the men.Through sun, believers worship Olorun in the ñangareo, making account that in earth is going to occur an itá or when an Iyawó is born. He is the owner of the life, giving energy, sustenance in the terrestrial life, owner of the colors, the light, the air, the vigor and of the effort. It is always by day or night although we do not see it. To greet Olorun one stands in front of the sun with the arms extended and the palms open. It is not received as an Orisha.
Olofi or Olofin is the third manifestation of Olodumare, of the Yoruba Òlófín (owner of the palace), its palace is the sky and its subdits the Orishas, Olofin is the one that is in indirect bonding with the men through the Orishas, is he who directs and supervises them his workings. Nothing can be obtained without its mediation. Olofi lives distant and not very often it lowers to the world like energy. Olofin is the one that distributed ashé to each Orisha (its relation with the energies of the nature) and has the secrets of the creation. Olofin allowed Orunmila to come to earth like a prophet. Olorun make use of all Orishas, but to prevent death uses Osun. It is received in Ifá. The one that receives its foundation will not be able to do nothing without before taking care of it. His ashé and direct bonding with the men are reserved to few priests.
Orunmila is an Orisha. He is the great benefactor of the humanity and his main advisor. He reveals the future through the secrets of Ifa, the supreme oracle. He is also a great healer, and those who ignores his advices can undergo the ups and downs produced by Eshu.
Orunmila represents the wisdom, the intelligence, and the cleverness that can superpose the badly. When Oloddumare created the Universe, Orunmila was there like witness. It is why it knows the destiny to everything what exists. That is also why he is called the eleri-ipin ibikeji Olodurmare (Witness of all the creation and the second in charge after Olodumare).
“Elerí Orula ipín
Iré keji Olodumare Onatumo agbedebeyo
Alapa siyan iwi Oduduwa
Aché mini ishe, Orunla somo somo
Orunla Iboru, Orunla Iboyá, Orunla Ibosheshé "
Orunmila is the first prophet of the Yorùbá religion, sent by Olodumare to control the births, the deceases and the development of the human beings and other species. Fortune teller and owner of the Oracle and interpret of Ifá. He was in the Earth like prophet with the 16 celestial ancestors (the Meyi of Ifá), between 2000 and the 4000 year a.c. Its cult comes from Ilé Ifé and its name comes from the Yorùbá Òrúnmìlà (“Only the sky knows those who will be saved”). It personifies the wisdom and the possibility of influencing the destiny, thus is most adverse. Those who doesn't accept the advice of Orula, being men or Orishas, can be victims of the Osogbos sent by Eshu, close to Shango, who provided with the permission of Olofi the gift of adivination to him, and Eshu, it's faiftfull ally. Orunmila forms an important trinity with Olofin and Oddúa (Oduduwa). Only those choosing by him can enter their cult through the “hand of Orula” (Awofakan) for the men and the Ikofafun, for the women. Women who receive him are considered women of Orula and receive the name of Apetebí, being this the most important consecration that a woman receives in the cult of Orula. In the case of the men they can arrive if Orunmila therefore decides them to be priests, in which case receive the name of Babalawo (Father of the secrets).Orunla has the accumulated knowledge of the secret things of the human being and nature, as well as knowledge on the history of the humanity. In the human plane it represents the spiritualities of all the Awó of Orunmila. He is the governing Orisha and interpreter of the Odun of Ifá Oracle. Orunmila isn't crowned as guardian Orisha and the Oracle only communicates through him. He enjoys the privilege to know the principle and origin all the things, including the Oshas and Orishas. He allows men to know their future and how to influence it. He is very related to Eshu and Osun. Orunmila is present at the moment at which the spirit who is going to incarnate to an individual is choosing his destiny. It represents the security, the support and the consolation before the uncertainty of the life. With his aid everything is possible. Their priests should be organized, the most mystical and wisest ones. Eshu is its assistant. The priesthood of the Orisha Orula exists in the concept in which the priesthood to other Oshas and Orishas can exist with the difference of which he is exclusive for men and within these for people who do not fall in critical moment. The women can arrive until the consecration of Ikofafún and have the privilege of being listened with the more success than men; the women who are Apetebí Ayafá are the true owners of the foundation of Ifá of the priest who they attend. Their colors are green and the yellow It is greeted Orula Iboru, Orula Iboyá, Orula Ibosheshe!
Family of Orula:Son of celestial parents Orokó and Alayerú. In the Earth he was son of Obbatalá and Yemú. Husband of Oshun and Yemayá.
Diloggún in Orula:Speech in diloggún by Irozo (4), Obbara (6) and Metanlá (13), Merinla (14), Marunlá (15) and Merindiloggún (16).
Tools of Orula:two halves of a güiro that represent the sky and the earth, that can go within a wood tray. Their attributes are two hands of Ikines, one otá, a cedar small board, the board (Opón Ifá or Até Ifá), a carved horn (Irofá), a Iruke (horse tail), the Ekuele or rosary of Ifá, the Yefá or dust of Orula, a brush to clean the board, an Iddé, the necklaces. His necklace is made with yellow and green beads.
Power tools of Orunla:The board of Ifa, which is used like percussion instrument in some ceremonies. Also an object done with horsehair called Iruke, which is used to move away the badly.
Offerings to Orula:He is offered ñame, cocconut, white basil, etc. He eats female goat, black hen, dove and deer. Their Ewe are aceitunillo, slight basil, arabo, altea, will plow, vermicelli acediana, rattan, colony, copey, crust of the cocconut, gallant at night, paradise, ceiba, ñame, etc.
Dances of Orunla:He does not have a dance since he does not lower, dances are made in his honor.
Attention to Orula:Orunmila must go in a high place in the house. In order to take care of Orunla one is due to make with each new moon, greases butter of corojo in the left hand and honey in the right, the hands rub and the hand goes over Orula (to inkines or seeds of two in two). While this is happening 2 candles should be ignited to him. While rubbing you ask his favour and breath over him, you request firmness to him and that your mind has wisdom to take the correct ways. Fine flowers are put to him, fresh, sweet fruits fine, peanut, ñame, the cocconut, everything in even numbers. In order to take care of him it is suggested to have bathed to be clean.
                                                            HEAD'S OSHAS
                                    * Obbatala    *yemaya    *oshun           *shango
The head's Oshas are the Oshas that receive every one that makes the Kari Osha ceremony (get Santo). Meaning, that the head's Oshas are always received no matter which guardian angel the personas has. That's why they are also called the Fundamental Oshas. The order of the head's Oshas are Obbatalá, Yemayá, Shangó and Oshún. These deities in an ancestral stage were present in the material plane and were crowned before returning to the spiritual plane.
Obbatalá is a Osha and is in the group of the Head's Oshas. Obbatalá is the father of all the people. He is the creator of the human beings and everything that lives in the planet. As creator he rules over all the parts of the human body, mainly of the head, the thoughts and the human life, owner of the whiteness, and all that symbolize peace and purity. Obbatalá is the owner of the white metals, mainly the silver. He represents the creation that is not necessarily immaculate; he is magnanimous and represents the superior being, also the physical and mental pride, wrath, despotism and people with defects or difficulties.Obbatalá was a Irunmole converted in Orisha by his errors. During his life in the terrenal plane he was king of the Igbó. His name comes from the Yoruba Obbàtalá (king of the purity). This Orisha pleases of all clean, white and pure. He does not admit nudity in his presence and either the lack of respect, is for that reason that their children must be very respectful. Their priests are called Oshabí.In the nature he is symbolized by mountains. He is the one that interyields before any Osha or Orisha by any individual for a difficulty the person has, because he is considered the father of the human sort and owner of all the heads. When it is not possible to be defined and it is not known which is the Angel of Guard of an individual, Obatalá is the Osha that is devoted to him.
His number is the 8 and their multiples and his color is white. He is greeted Jekúa Babá!
Family of Obbatalá:He is descending direct of Oloddumare.
Diloggún in Obbatalá: In diloggún he speaks by Elleunle
Tools of Obbatalá: Obbatalá lives in a sopera that can be of silver, some silver-plated metal or white slab. He has 4 Otás (stones) and in the case that is Olorí, he has 8, his attributes are a handle of silver, igbín (snails), slimy, two white ivory eggs, nacre or onyx, takes in addition a white Iruke (horse tail), snake, sun, chain, full moon, half moon, a hand grasping a sceptre, cayado (poayé), metal doves and agogó or silver-plated bell. His elekes is totally white, in other cases put in with colors according to the path. All their objects are wrapped in white cotton.
Obbatalá's Power Objects:The sceptre of power called opa. A silver bracelet. Iruke, object done with tail horsehair.
Suits of Obbatalá:Obbatala always gets dressed in white In his warrior's path, he wears a red band on his chest. Suns and moons are sticked to his suit. He wears 8 handkerchiefs around his waist.
Dances of Obbatalá:When Obbatala comes down he dances according to th path. In his honor the dancers imitate the smooth movements and dubbings of a very old person. In his warrior's path he dances as if he was brandishing a sword. He speaks and does predictions, cleaning the presents with the iruke.
Offerings to Obbatalá:To Babá are immolated white doves, white hens, white goats, white hens of guinea. His taboos are the alcohol, the crabs and the beans. He is offered rice with milk, merengue, silverplated grageas, guanábana, grenade, canary seed, ñame, butter of cacao, husk, maize, white flowers, specially the one of the cotton. His ewes is the acacia, chicory, bell, cotton, white bledo, artemisa, atiponlá, rattan of the virgin, saffron, lily, white golden purl, cocconut, african cocconut, day gallant, night gallant, incense, malva, salvia, trébol
His paths are:* Obbatalá Oshanlá.* Obbatalá Oggán* Obbatalá Orishanlá* Obbatalá Ayágguna, Iyá Yagguna o Ayággruna * Obbatalá Ibaíbo, Igbá Ibó, Obbá Iba o Ibá Ibó* Obbatalá Obálufón.* Obbatalá Oshagriñan, Osá Griñan, Osá Kriñán o Agguiriñá* Obbatalá Yekú Yekú o Yekú Oño.* Obbatalá Alaguema, Aguemó Yemá o Aguema* Obbatalá Ekaniké* Obbatalá Talabí* Obbatalá Baba Fururú* Obbatalá Eyuaró, Eruadyé o Eluayé* Obbatalá Ashó, Asholó o Babá Ashó* Obbatalá Obá Moró, Obamoró u Obbámoró* Obbatalá Orisha Ayé* Obbatalá Ondó* Obbatalá Ayalúa* Obbatalá Alabalaché* Obbatalá Olufón* Obbatalá Oloyú Okuní* Obbatalá Oshá Orol  * Obbatalá Okeylú* Obbatalá Aná Suaré.* Obbatalá Adema * Obbatalá Segbo Lisa* Obbatalá Oshalufón * Obbatalá Oguiniyán* Obbatalá Obalabí.* Obbatalá Elefuro * Obbatalá Oba Akiyá* Obbatalá Oba Malú* Obbatalá Efún Yobí* Obbatalá Alarmorere.* Obbatalá Orisha Yeyé* Obbatalá Obón* Obbatalá Obanlá* Obbatalá Aikalambó* Obbatalá Oshereilbo.* Obbatalá Airaniké* Obbatalá Oyú Alueko * Obbatalá Orisha Iwín * Obbatalá Oyé Ladé* Obbatalá Ekúndiré* Obbatalá Orisha Obralá* Obbatalá Bibí Niké* Obbatalá Edegú* Obbatalá Abany * Obbatalá Ayenolú o Ayelú* Obbatalá Yemmú o Yembó* Obbatalá Agguidai.
Yemaya is an Osha of the Head's Oshas group. Yemaya is the mother of all the children in the Earth, Iyá Omo Aiyé. She represents the uterus in any specie, the source of the life, the fertility, the maternity. In the nature she is symbolized by the waves of the sea, like her dance that resembles the motion of the ocean.Yemaya is the Orisha of the Oggùn river that runs by Òyó and Abeokutá, in the Nupe territory, transfer to territory Cover, in Abeokutá, Ibadán and Shaki. Yemaya when punishes is inflexible, she is a fortune teller par excellence, she robbed the okpele of Orula and he gave her the diloggún. She is the owner of waters and the sea, source of all the life. Queen of Abeokutá. Her name comes from the Yorùbá Yemòjá (Yeyé: mother - Omo: son - Eyá: Fish) literally mother of the fish. It is said that we all are her children, as for 9 months we swam like fish in the placenta of our mother. She always eats next to Shango, except Yemaya Okute that eats with Oggun.She is received as a tutelar Orishaand in the Sodo Orisha her omo does not receive Oyá. Before the crowning, ceremonies are made at least 7 days before in the sea. Her otás are 7 dark or black stones that shelter there.She is compared with the Virgin of Regla (7 of September). Her number is the 7 and its multiples. Her color is blue and its tonalities. She is greeted Omío Yemaya Omoloddé! Yemaya Ataramawa!
Family of Yemaya:Daughter of Olokun, for that reason she is related to the sea. She was wife of Obbatala, Orunla, Aggayu, Babalu ayé, Orisha Oko and in one of her ways of Oggun. Sister of Oshún. She was the mother of most of the Orishas and raised the others.
Diloggún in Yemaya:Speaks in diloggún fundamentally by Oddí (7), although also does by Irosso (4).
Tools of Yemaya:She lives in a sopera or tinaja of blue color or bluish tonalities that contains her otás and with water. Her attributes are 7 oars, 7 adanes (handles), a crown, rudder, boats, seahorses, fish, shells, chorales, a sun, a full moon, 1 hand of snails, a mermaid, plates, a life-guard, a star, a key, a maraca painted of blue, round fans, a pylon and all related to the sea, silver or silverplated.
Her more traditional elekes are made putting in 7 blue beads, 1 blue overseas and 7 of water.
Yemaya's tools of power:An agbegbe, a fan of duck pens or decorated peacock with madreper and shells. An object done with hairs of the tail of the horse with blue and white accounts. A bell to be called.
Suits of Yemaya:Yemaya dresses a mantle crepe in a dress navy blue, that can have adornments in blue and white. It takes small bells sewn on its. She has her agbegbe and a wide belt of cotton with a rhomboid in the stomach around her waist.
Dances of Yemaya:When Yemaya comes dows she arrives in outbursts of laughter. Her body moves like the waves of the ocean, one moment smoothly, then shaken by the storm. Then she begins to turn like a whirl. She can imitate to be swimming or diving in the ocean bringing the treasures of the bottom for her children. Also she can imitate to be rowing. The other dancers do a circle around her making movements like the waves that increases in speed until they begin to turn.
Offerings to Yemaya:She is offered yemaya's Ochinchin made with hard shrimps, capers, lettuce, eggs, tomato and beet, ekó (tamale of corn that become involved in banana leaves), olelé (frijoles of carita or porotos covered with jengibre, garlic and onion), green bananas in balls or ñame with gumbo, black porotos, dumbbells of gofio with melado of cane, coconut, black sugar, fish, watermelon, papayas, grapes, pears of water, apples, oranges, melado sugar of cane, etc. To her are inmolated sheep, ducks, hens, hens of Angola, doves, quails.
Her ewes are itamo real, white lettuce, peregun, water atiponlá, mejorana, mazorquilla, flower, meloncillo, grass indigo, watercress, verbena, malanguilla, paragüita, prodigious, fern, cockroach, malanga, golden purl, basil, good grass, gold button, grass of the girl, carqueja, ten of the day, rattan of jaiba, male ubí rattan, bitter rattan, verdolaga, jagua, the slime of sea, avocado, plum, pichona, cosmall stick of the mount, etc. are
Her paths are:* Yemaya Asesu* Yemaya Awoyó* Yemaya Akuará * Yemaya Okute or Okuti* Yemaya Ibu Konla* Yemaya Ashaba or Ayabá* Yemaya Mayaleo or Mayelewo* Yemaya Yembó or Yemú* Yemaya Ibu Okoto* Yemaya Ibu Oleyo* Yemaya Ibu Elowo * Yemaya Akere * Yemaya Gold* Yemaya Ataremawa* Yemaya Ibu Gunle* Yemaya Ibu Agana* Yemaya Ibu Akinomi* Yemaya Ibu Iña* Yemaya Oggún Ayipo. * Yemaya Oggún Asomi* Yemaya Ibu Node* Yemaya Yamase* Yemaya Ibu Alaro* Yemaya Ibu Yabani.* Yemaya Ibu Tinibu * Yemaya Lokún Nipa.
oshun is a Osha and is in the group of the Head's Oshas. She represents the intensity of the feelings and the spirituality, the human sensuality, the gentleness, the refinement, the love and all related to women. She protects the pregnant; she is a beautiful woman, cheering and smiling but inside she's very severe, suffered and sometimes sad. She represents the religious rigor and symbolizes the implacable punishment. She is the only one capable to appear before Olofin to beg for the human beings. In the nature she is symbolized by the rivers. She is the apetebí of Orunmila. She is related to jewels, adornments and the money.She is the goddess of the river of the same name in Nigeria. It's said she lived in a cave that still exists in Ijesa, Nigera, to the north towards the river Nile. She was the second wife of Shangó.In Nigeria she is adored in many parts of Yorubaland, although it is in the city of Osogbo, through where passes her river where she has the greater amount of believers. The Osogbo name comes from the union of Oshun and Ogbo. She saved this city for that reason the king called it that way. In Africa her messenger is the crocodile. Their followers take offerings to the river and requests her favors.Oshun is the Orisha of the fresh water. Her name comes from the Yorùbá Osún. She saved the world flying like a (Ibú Kolé), specie of vulture. Also she spoke with Olofin, when Olokun brought the deluge. It was Yemayá who gave her fortune and gave her as house house the river waters. She was the one who requested the intervention of the women in the Orishas meeting.
She is received like a tutelar Orisha, and takes a ceremony in the river 5 days before the crowning. Because she saved the world all the Iyawó before crowning Osha Akua Kua Lerí must go to the river to give account to her with its respective Ochinchin and Obí.She compares with the Virgin of the Caridad del Cobre, patron of Cuba. Her number are 5 and its multiples. Her color is the yellow in all its tonalities. She is greeted Yalodde Yeyé Kari! Yeyeo! Omoriyeyeo.
Family of Oshun:Daughter of Obbatala and Yemayá, sister of Oyá and Obbá, was wife of Oggun, Orunla, Oshosi with whom she had Logún Ede and of Shango with whom she had the Twins Talako and Salabí (Ibeyis). Intimate friend of Eleggua, who protects her.
Diloggún in Oshun:Speech in diloggun by Oshé (5), Obbara meyi (66), Eyeunle (8) and by Ofún Mafún (10).
Tools of Oshun:Oshun lives in a sopera of yellow color or several colors predominating the yellow. She takes 5 Otá that lives within the sopera with water of river. Their main attributes are a sun, a hand of cauries, mirrors, combs, hoops, 5 oddanes (handles), fish, fans, fans of sandalo, pens of Ibú Kolé, pens of peacock, crowns, hearts, snails, shells, water stones, irukes, bells, handkerchiefs, half moon, two oars, a star, etc. Her Elekes or necklace are made putting in 5 yellow beads, 1 amber, 5 gilded.
Oshun´s Power Objects:She uses a yellow fan of sandalo or peacock's feather. She sound her five gold bracelets. A half moon, two oars, a star, the sun and five small bells that go with her. These objects can change according to the path.
Suits of Oshun:Oshun wears a yellow dress, fitted by a strip with a rhomboid in the stomach. The dress takes bells in some points.
Dances of Oshun:The dance of Oshun is the most sensual one. She laughs as Yemaya and shakes her arms to sound her bracelets. Oshun raises her arms over the head to emphasize her enchantments. While she dances, she makes sexual movements and asks for sex to the men with her extended hands and abrupt movements of her hips. She requests honey, showing the sweetness of sex and life. She also can imitate that rows in a small boat. She combs her hair or admires herself in the mirror, she sometimes watch over her nose those around her.
Offerings to Oshun:He is offered her favorite food whis is Ochinchin, done with shrimps, beet, onion, red pepper, escarola, olive oil, dry white wine and eggs, palaquetas of gofio with honey, honey of bees, lettuce, escarola, beet, yellow rice, tamales, flour of maize, ekó, ekrú, olelé with saffron, candies of all type and fruits of the river. To her are immolated capon, hens, hens of Angola, doves, tortoise, etc. Her ewes are dry love, anise, indigo, sea turtle, sweet potato, witch, pumpkin, spinach, cinnamon, sunflower, lettuce, beet, malvaté, handle, manzanilla, parsley, grass of the girl, vetiver, grass cayman, pomarrosa, geranium of scent, hazel of coast, melon of castile, chayote, currant, etc..
Her paths are: * Oshún Kolé kolé, Akalá Kalá, Ikolé, Ibú Kolé* Oshún Ibu Akuaro* Oshun Ololodí or Olodí.* Oshún Ibu Aña* Oshún Ibu Iñani or Añani* Oshún Ibu Yumu* Oshún Ibu Oddonki* Oshún Ibu Oggale* Oshún Ibu Okuanda* Oshún Ibu Addesa* Oshún Ibu Ayede or Ayade* Oshún Ibu Okuase or Akuase Oddo.* Oshun Gumí, Bomó or Bumí* Oshún Eleke Oñí* Oshún Ibu Itumu* Oshún Aremu Kondiano* Oshún Ibu Semi or Seni * Oshún Ibu Fondae* Oshún Ibu Odoko* Oshún Ibu Awayemi or Awuayemi* Oshún Ibu Eledan or Elenda* Oshún Idere Lekun* Oshún Ibu Añare or Iñare* Oshún Ibu Agandara* Oshún Ibu Tinibu or Timibu* Oshún Oroyobi* Oshun Yeyé Moró or Yeyé Kari or Ibu Siegan* Oshún Ibu Latie Elegba* Oshún Edé* Oshún Ibu Aha Swears * Oshun Miwá* Oshún Ibu Oddoi* Oshun Kayodé* Oshun Sekesé* Oshun Fumiké* Oshun Funké* Oshun Niwé* Oshun Awé.
Shango is an Osha of the Head's Oshas group. Shango is one of the most popular Oshas of the Yoruba pantheon, great warrior, he is the king of the religion. Orisha of justice, the dance, the viril force, the thunderclaps, the rays and the fire, owner of the drums Wemileres, Ilú Batá or Bembés, of the dance and music; he represents the necessity and the joy to live, the intensity of the life, the masculine beauty, the passion, intelligence and the wealth. He is the owner of the religious system of Osha-Ifá. He represents the greater number of favorable and unfavorable situations. He was the first owner and interpreter of the Ifa's oracle, is fortune teller and interpreter of the Diloggún's oracle and the Biange and Aditoto. Shango represents and has a special relation with the world of the Eggun. Shango was the 4th Alafín (king) of Òyó, this is the second dynasty of Oduduwa after the destruction of Katonga, the first administrative capital of the Yoruba empire. Shango arrived in a transcendental time of Yoruba history, where the people had forgotten the lessons of God. Shango was sent with its twin brother by Oloddumare to clean society and for the town followed a clean life again and the lessons of the unique God. After becoming King, the town dwellers began to say that Shango was very strict and even tyrannous. In that time the laws said that if a king wanted to be removed by his town he had to die. Shango finished with his life hanging himself, but he returned in his twin brother Angayú who with the use of the powder, ended the enemies of Shango. Then he began to be adored as Orisha and was called the God of Thunder.Shango was a warrior king and the generals of Ibadan loved him. His followers saw him like the container of great creative potentialities. Shango was one of the Yoruba kings who helped to construct battle formation and thanks to his conquests the Yoruba empire extended from Mauritania to Gabon. He became famous mainly for his cavalry, which had a fundamental paper in the construction of the empire.Other legends exists where it is said that Shango killed his children and spouses because his experiments with the powder, after regreting that he became an Orisha.Shango was the first awó, and changed the ashé of the divination with Orunla for the dance, because of this he is very important in the cult of ifá for the babalawos, having the babalawos a hand of Ikines called hand of Shango.Shango is brother of heart with Babalu Ayé (okan pelú okan). Shango eats first when this Orisha is crowned, since was Shango who helped him to be cured of his plagues. Ossaín is the godfather of Shango, the name of his slave is Deú and his messenger is called Bangboshé.Shango means rebel, their stones or otanes are taken from cascades or rivers. One of the fundamental Orishas that is received when Kari-Osha Shango is Aggayú Sola. Every omo Shango must enter with Aggayú. His main symbol is the Oshe. The Oshe is a doll carved in cedar and instead of a head it has a double axe. Oshe with time is an energy that takes load, made by the babalawos, this lives with Shango.In order to make Shango a ceremony on the foot of a cedar or real palm must be made at least with 6 days of anticipation to the Osha Akua Kua Lerí. Shango is compared with Saint Barbara, which has its celebration on December 4th. Shango's day of the week is Saturday, although Friday also is popular.His number is the 6 and its multiples, although some adjudge the 4 to him, perhaps because of Santa Barbara. His colors are red and white. He is greeted Kaó Kabiesilé, Shango Alufina!
Family of Shango:Shango was husband of Obba, Oyá and Oshún. In some paths he descends directly from Oloddumare, in others is son of Obbatala and Oddúa (Oduduwa), others locate him like son of Obbatala and Aggayu and also of Obbatalá Ibaíbo and Yembó, he was bred by Yemayá and Dadá. Brother of Dadá, Orunmila, Oggun, Eleggua, Oshosi and Osun.
Diloggún in Shango:He speaks in diloggún by Obbara (6) and Ellila Sebora (12), which is his main oddun.
Tools of Shango:His receiver is a cedar, wood tray preferredly, with cover, that is located above of a pylon that often can have castle form. His main attributes are six tools done in cedar, axes, swords, rays, drums, a hand of snails, crowns, glass, a saber, maraca of güira, a mace, etc. He also takes chekere done of turtle carapaces.Between the utensils that can be put around him are a black horse, a drum, a red flag shining, three axes, a stick and a scimitar.Their necklaces or elekes are made alternating white red accounts and.
Power tools of Shango:His tools of power are a double axe, a glass and a sword.
Suits of Shango:Shango gets dressed in a red shirt with white white lists and red trousers. Also he can dress short white trousers with cut ends in the legs. His chest is in the open and wears a short jacket that can be red or of red white lists. In his head it takes a crown, that sometimes has the form of a castle.
Dances of Shango:When Shango comes down he strikes with his head and gives three rounds down to the drums. His characteristics movements are brandish his axe and touching his testicles. No other orisha will give higher jumps, dance more violently or make stranger gestures. Commonly he can eat fire. The dances of Shango usually are erotic or warrior like. As a warrior he brandish his axe and make threatening gestures. Like lover, he tries to demonstrate the size of his penis, bends, make winks to the women. The dancers imitate his movement.
Offerings to Shango:To Shango are offered amalá done with flour of corn, green milk and gumbo, bananas, otí, Indian banana, red wine, toasted maize, barley, canary seed, etc. To him are immolated sheep, roosters, quails, tortoise (turtle of river), hen of Guinean, doves, etc. His ewes are the bledo jabbed, atiponlá, platanillo of Cuba, Ceiba, paradise, cedar, poplar, barye, zarzaparilla, rattan sea turtle, colored rattan, almácigo, camagua, wild combustera, sugar cane, onion, mahogany, flamboyán, dark guano, laurel, corn, bitter wood, colored mamey, wood boma, grass tortoise, pinion, gumbo, rompesaragüey, robust, tomato, travesera, yaya, palm, peonía, mint, trébol, canistel, filigrama, yaba, etc.
Paths of Shango:The paths of Shango rather talk about the titles that he received when he was king. Meaning his royalty, his art to legislate, to wage the war, his force and relation with the fire and the ray, among other aspects.The paths of Shango rather talk about the titles that he received when he was king. Meaning his royalty, his art to legislate, to wage the war, his force and relation with the fire and the ray, among other aspects.
His paths are:* Shango Obadimeyi* Shango Obakoso* Shango Bumí* Shango Dibeyi* Shango Alafin or Alafi Alafi. * Shango Arira * Shango Olosé* Shango Kamúkan * Shango Obbará* Shango Yakutá* Shango Ko Under* Shango Lubbe or Bara Lubbe* Shango Olufina Kake * Shango Obalúbe * Shango Obaluekun* Shango Bangboshé* Shango Addima Addima* Shango Obbaña* Shango Eyee* Shango Alayé or Eluwekon * Shango Obayá* Shango Lubbeo* Shango Omangüerille * Shango Oban Yoko. * Shango Alufina* Shango Ebbora* Shango Ladde or Larí* Shango Dedina* Shango Luami.* Shango Deima* Shango Deizu* Shango Tolá* Shango Obba Bi* Shango Yumi Kasiero* Shango Asabeyi.* Shango Oluoso* Shango Okanami* Shango Nipa* Shango Gbogbagúnle* Shango Gbamí* Shango Fáyo.* Shango Deyí* Shango Obanlá* Shango Tápa* Shango Godo* Shango Odúnbadeyí* Shango Oba Tolá.* Shango Oluóso* Shango Nupé * Shango Oba Yokó * Shango Okanami* Shango Ball* Shango Oloké.
                                           ORISHA WARRIORS                 
                        * Eshu  * Oggun     * Eleggua   * Oshosi     * Osun
The Orisha Warriors or Orisha Oddé are the first who must receive any initiate in the Yoruba religion. These only can be given by the priests of high hierarchy, denominated Oluwos or Babalawos. Although at the moment exists some spiritual houses that give Elegguás, compound only of coconuts or otás, is only the Eshu-Eleggua given by Babalawos the ones containing the load and the secret so this Orisha have his own path and exerts its fundamental function.
Ceremony of delivery of the warriors
In order to give to the warriors the aleyo or initiated kneels down opposed to his religion godfather. The padrino drops water saying:
Omi tuto, ile tuto, Tuto Laroye. Omo tutu (nombre del aleyo)
Elegba tuto, Oggun tuto, Oshosi tuto, Osun tuto. Ariku baba Wa.
Moyugba Olofin, mayugba Orun, ayugba iku embelese Olodumare.
Ase mi iyare, ase mi ya toba.
Ase mi oyubonacan, ase my oluwo and all ori s'iro oloshas, babaloshas that covers my ilé.
Igba e tonú bogbo elco de ara onú (mention the name of all the relatives passed away in religion and blood)
After finalized east prayer in Yoruba they give the Orisha Oddé, beginning by Elegua, and soon in this order Oggun, Oshosi and Osun. Soon the godson rises and greets to his godfather hitting itself respective opposed shoulders, blessing him.
Place in the house of the Warriors
To enter the house a ceremony is needed, once in the house Elegua, Oggun and Oshosi are located in most of the cases behind the front door and Osun in a place upper than the head of the owner. It is important that Osun not be place where he can fall by accident, since this indicates that the life of its prote'ge' is in danger, in that case the godfather must be contacted quickly.
Eshu is an Orisha, of the group of the Orisha Oddé (warriors). He governs the manifestations of the malevolent. For the good to manifest, it's neccesary to know the evil and the ways to evade it. He is the one who is always making traps and deceives the Orishas and men in the different legend or patakines. He means the misfortunes that happen in our lives when we are not in syntony or balance with which surrounds us. Eshu is of exclusive power of the Babalawos, they load it and give it, Eshu is not crowned. According to ifa it has 201 ways or paths. The Babalawos consecrates it with diverse elements of the nature. It does not speak by the Dilogún and it does not go to itá. It works directly with Orunla; he is the one that takes ebbó and gives account of the offerings. Most of the Oshas and Orishas are accompanied by a specific Eshu. In addition, all the Odun of Ifá has their particular Eshu. Eshu as adoration object is made by the Awó of Orunmila.The Eshu-Eleggua combination represents the constant bond between the positive and the negative, so that all change demands a crisis and there is no calm without calmness. When a home is protected denotes the presence of Elegua and when there there are problems it is that Eshu has entered. The western culture confused Eshu with the Devil, but that's not correct, in any case it could be confused with the Devil that tempted Jesus; Eshu, the trickster, but in nothing else it is resembled, since its objective is to provoke chaos so that measures to obtain the balance are taken
Family of Eshu:Eshu is the first particle of life created by Olorun. It is indicated that their 201 ways are children of orunmila
Paths of Eshu:* Eshu Abalonke * Eshu Abainukue [Abanulue] * Eshu Abarikoko [Aberekoko] * Eshu Aberu* Eshu Aboni* Eshu Adawa* Eshu Afradi* Eshu Aganika* Eshu Agbadé* Eshu Agbalonké.* Eshu Agbanile* Eshu Agbobamaleki [Agbobara Meleki]* Eshu Agongo Olo Onya* Eshu Agongo Ogo* Eshu Agogo [Agoto]* Eshu Agomeyo* Eshu Agororó [Agoggoro]* Eshu Agroiele [Agroi]* Eshu Aiyede* Eshu Akarajéu* Eshu Akanadrede* Eshu Akere [Aguere]* Eshu Akerebioke [Arerebieke]* Eshu Akokolebiye [Akokoleriyu] [Akokoriye] * Eshu Alagbóna [Alagbana] [Alagbawana]* Eshu Alaloilu [Alalombe].* Eshu Alakétu * Eshu Alawana* Eshu Alayikí* Eshu Aletán* Eshu Alimu* Eshu Aloba* Eshu Aloma* Eshu Aluasamá* Eshu Alufama* Eshu Añaki Olokun* Eshu Arailele [Araelele]* Eshu Araidi* Eshu Arayeyi.* Eshu Arinika [Arimika]* Eshu Aroni* Eshu Aropiu [Aropin]* Eshu Aruda [Arugda]* Eshu Arufin.* Eshu Aselu* Eshu Ashikuelu * Eshu Atulú [Atutu] * Eshu Awaloboma [Alawabona] * Eshu Awere.* Eshu Ayentelú [Ajetola]* Eshu Ayeru* Eshu Ayé* Eshu Barabé [Baragbo]* Eshu Baradage* Eshu Baragargaluo [Baragadano].* Eshu Baraiye* Eshu Baralanube [Saralanube]* Eshu Baralajiki* Eshu Baralasikú.* Eshu Baralona* Eshu Baraña [Baraiña] * Eshu Barañiki * Eshu Bariño [Baraiño * Eshu Barokeño [Barakeño] [Bara Kinkeño] * Eshu Batioye [Batieye] [Batiye] * Eshu Belón * Eshu Beleke * Eshu Bí * Eshu Birí. * Eshu Biribí* Eshu Bikuyin* Eshu Bode [Bogde]* Eshu Borokú* Eshu Bragada* Eshu Dare* Eshu Of* Eshu Diki [Deke] * Eshu Ebelukeño [Abelugueño] * Eshu Edugbele* Eshu Ekileyo* Eshu Ekuboro* Eshu Elegbara.* Eshu Eluasama* Eshu Emere* Eshu Esherike * Eshu Ewé* Eshu Griyelú * Eshu Gberú * Eshu Ibamalá [Imbalá]* Eshu Iboribueno [Iborikeño] * Eshu Idena * Eshu Igidé * Eshu Ileloya * Eshu Ijelú * Eshu Iña * Eshu Janadá* Eshu Jano* Eshu Kakesa* Eshu Kaminalowá* Eshu Kawanilele Orun [Mawanitele Okun]* Eshu Kekunyelede [Yekun Yeledi] * Eshu Keneno [Kekeno] * Eshu Koima Koima [Koiña Koiña].* Eshu Kolofó* Eshu Kotero* Eshu Laboni* Eshu Lalu [Lala]* Eshu Laluokirioko [Laluokikiokoko]* Eshu Lameta [Lamota] * Eshu Lamulamubata* Eshu Laribere [Layibora]* Eshu Laroke [Larowe]* Eshu Laroye* Eshu Lashe* Eshu Layé* Eshu Mud [Londelo]* Eshu Lodé* Eshu Lolu* Eshu Malé* Eshu Marara [Karara]* Eshu Marimaiyé* Eshu Masankio * Eshu Meko [Mako]* Eshu Morilaye [Merilaye]* Eshu Ná* Eshu Nanke* Eshu Nor Bakuo* Eshu Nikiniki [Miwi Miwi]* Eshu Obakokero [Obakekero]* Eshu Obaniwana [Obanijuana].* Eshu Obarakaketu [Abara Lakentu]* Eshu Obasin Layé [Abasinlaye]* Eshu Obayila [Abatila].* Eshu Oddara * Eshu Oddemasa [Oddemora]* Eshu Ofún Meyiyí* Eshu Ogunilobe [Ogunnilewo]* Eshu Ojuani Lelé Alaroye* Eshu Okán * Eshu Okokoyebiye [Akokoyebiye] * Eshu Okuanda [Okuando] [Okuande] * Eshu Okuboro [Akuoro] * Eshu Olanki* Eshu Onibarakeña [Onibara Kena]* Eshu Oniburu [Onibure]* Eshu Oni Oshosi* Eshu Onini Buruku* Eshu Oroigi [Oroiki]* Eshu Osiká* Eshu Osukakugbo [Osakakungmo].* Eshu Owó* Eshu Shiguide* Eshu Sokere* Eshu Soko Yoki* Eshu Suayu* Eshu Tolabí* Eshu Unyolo [Ungolo] * Eshu Wanloke [Awanloke]* Eshu Wonke* Eshu Yangi.* Eshu Yelu. Orunmila.
Eleggua is an Osha. First of the warriors next to Oggún, Oshosi and Osun. Eleggua is the first proteción, is the first that any aleyo or nascent one in the religion must consecrate. He represents the sight that follows a way. He is a ferocious warrior, when united with Oggun and Oshossi, nothing stops him. He is symbolized by rocks in the nature. He came to the Earth accompanying Obbatala, and he is the messenger of Olofin. He lives in most cases behind the door. He is the owner of the paths and the destiny. He is who closes or opens the astral ways for the happiness of the men. He is always taked into account to make anything. He is the doorman of the plains and the forrests.Eleggua is a God or Osha that is crowned, goes to mat the day of itá of Osha and speaks by diloggún. The main sign of the Olosha is determined by its conversation and the sign of the angel of the guard. Also he is who interprets the main of the letters of the oracular system of diloggún and plays a fundamental roll in the oracle subsystems of Biangue or Aditoto. He is given by Babaloshas and Iyaloshas. He has been the unique one that has gone and returned of the world of Ará Onú. He gained sufficient privileges from Olofin, Obbatala and Orunmila to be first in being taken care of. His hand of snails is the greater, since it consists of 21, these are also the number of its ways. The oracle of the cocconuts (obi) belongs to him par excellence next to Obbatala.His number is 3, his colors are red and black. Monday and the 3rd day of every month are their days. He is compared with the Young Saint of Atocha (January 1st).He is greeted Laroyé Eleggua!
Eleggua's Family:Son of Okuboro and Añagui, kings of the region of Egbá. His original name comes from the Yoruba Èsú Elègbará (messenger and prince of those who live in Egbá). Others says that he was son of Obbatalá and Yembó, brother of Shango, Oggun, Osun and Orunmila.
Eleggua and Diloggun:He speaks in all the oddus as he owns them, but fundamentally he speaks in Oddi, Okana Sode and Ojuani Shobe.
Tools of Elegguá:He dwells in any of these: one otá (stone), stone of shell, stone of reef, otá with load, snail cobo with load, a dry coconut or with mass with load. He is placed in a pot. His attributes are bells, a stick (cane) of guayaba, a mouse trap, coins, toys, small balls, whistles, matracas, hat of guano or straw, a maraca painted with its colors. His elekes (necklaces) are made of alternate black and red beads.
Eleggua tools of power:The stick.
Suits of Eleggua:Elegguá dresses in frock coat, small trousers and a red hat. The colors of these must combine in red and black. Some times, instead of being combined red and black stripes are used. All the suit, specially the cap, ornaments with small balls and shells.
Offerings to Eleggua:oats, roosters or chickens, chicks, jutías, black or red mice are immolated to him. Their taboo is the doves, because they debilitate him, except in some paths where he admits it. His ewes are abrecaminos, knows lesson, croto, carob tree, camphor, almacigo, watercress, basil, Chilean red pepper, red pepper guaoguao, poplar, atiponlá, almond, leg of hen, ceiba, curujey, chichicate, rattan guaro, jobo, peonía, peregún, wonder, pricks goad, scrapes language, siempreviva, rompesaragüey, verdolag , prank, white, pendejera bramble, pinion earthenware pitcher, etc.
Paths of Eleggua:* Eleggua Abaile* Eleggua Afrá* Eleggua Agbanukué [Agbanuké]* Eleggua Akéru.* Eleggua Agongo Ogo* Eleggua Akesan* Eleggua Wing Him Ilú * Eleggua Wing Lu Banshé* Eleggua Alaroye Akokelebiyú* Eleggua Añanki* Eleggua Awó Bara* Eleggua Elufé* Eleggua Barakikeñerí* Eleggua Bara Wing Asuayo [Lasuayo] * Eleggua Aggó Meyó* Eleggua Biawooná* Eleggua Eborikeke.* Eleggua Agüere Kikeño [Kinkeñe]* Eleggua Agatigaga.a
Oggun is an Osha of the group of Orisha Oddé, this group is conformed by Eleguá, Oggún, Oshosi and Osun. He is one of the first Orishas and Oshas that any individual receives. He is the strength; he also represents the work and the rough and initial force, the force that locks up the box of the human body, the thorax, where they are all the vital organs. In the nature he is symbolized by the iron, all the metals and the virility in the human being. He owns the chains. He is a decisive Osha in the ceremony of confirmation of the Oloshas (Pinaldo) and in the Awó ni Orunmila (Kuanaldo). He is the one that has the right to sacrifice, since the knife belongs to him, the object with which the sacrifice is made generally.
He is crowned on his children's head. He owns the forrests along with Oshosi and the paths along with Elegua. The metals belong to him, is patron of the blacksmiths, of the wars, watcher of the human beings. His name comes from the Yoruba Òggún (war). He is from Ileshá and was king of Iré. His colors are mulberry or green and black. His elekes (necklaces) are made alternating green and black beads.
His number is 3 and its multiples. His day of the week is Tuesday and days 4 of every month. Compared with St. Peter (29 of June).He is greeted Oke Oggun! Oggun Kobú Kobú, Aguanilé!
Oggun's Family:Son of Oduduwa, brother of Shangó, Oranmiyán, Oshosi, Osun and Elegua.
Diloggún in Oggun:Speaks in the odú Oggunda (3).
Tools of Oggun:He lives in an iron kettle of three legs and lays otá (stone) collected in the forrest or the railroad. His attributes are the horseshoes, the nails of railroad, a piece of railroad, brake of horse, swords, tips, shovels, machete, mass, the set of anvil and hammer representing the forging of iron, tools of work in general, chains, revolvers, rifle, knives (of which he is owner), achabbá (chain with 21 pieces), hat of guao, mariwó, lances, magnet, etc.
Oggun's Tools of Power:The machete.
Suits of Oggun:Oggun gets dressed in purple vest and trousers with a flattened cap. He also wears a belt adorned with long fibers of palm. In his shoulder a purse of skin of tiger adorned with shells.
Offerings to Oggun:He is offered butter of cacao, jutía and smoked fish, tobacco, aguardiente, butter of corojo, meat cattle or goat, toasted corn, canary seed, flour of maize, ñame, haricot beans, nuts of Kola, etc. To him are immolated goats, roosters or chickens, hens of Angola, doves, jutías and in the antiquity dogs and horses. His ewes are the avocado, carob tree, almácigo, almond, atiponlá, language of cow, leg of hen, ceiba, Moor, grass of the blood, dormidera, basil, aroma, rompesaragüey, romerillo, thistle santo, jengibre, grenade, pendejera, peonía, tobacco, always alive, peregún, wonder, jagüey, verdolaga, grass ten of the day, yucca, fine grass, gallant at night, etc.
Oggun's dances:When Oggun comes down, is known by two characteristic dances. The dance of the warrior, in which he swings the machete breaking the air, while he advances with a foot and drags the other and the dance of the worker in which he mimics harvesting with the machete, or as if he was hammering like a blacksmith. The others must imitate the movements of Oggun, dancing around in a circle.
To crown Oggun. Kari-Osha:In order to crown this Osha must have received before the Orishas Warriors. During the coronation the Oshas and Orishas due to receive are the following.
Oggún, Elegguá, Oshosi, Obbatalá, Oke, Yemayá, Shangó, Oggué, Oshún, Oyá and Aggayú.
Paths of Oggun:* Oggún Onile* Oggún Alagbo or Alagbede* Oggún Melli* Oggún Arere* Oggún Shibiriki* Oggún Kobu Kobu* Oggún Aguanile* Oggún Meye* Oggún Adaiba* Oggún Jobí* Oggún Adeolá* Oggún Já* Oggún Olokó* Oggún Aroye* Oggún Onira* Oggún Oniré* Oggún Oké* Oggún Aladú* Oggún Valanyé or Valenyé* Oggún Ñako Ñiko * Oggún Olode* Oggún Soroké* Oggún Warí* Oggún Talajó* Oggún Olobe* Oggún kasajó* Oggún Olobeté* Oggún Abagága* Oggún Bi* Oggún Deyi* Oggún Of* Oggún Pátakori* Oggún Ondó* Oggún Igiri * Oggún Abesan * Oggún Orioko * Oggún Alará * Oggún Ikolá* Oggún Akirun * Oggún Makinde * Soft Oggún * Oggún Elémona * Oggún Gbenagbena. * Oggún Olópa.
Oshosi or Oshossi is an Osha of the group of the Orisha Oddé. This group is conformed by Eleguá, Oggún, Oshosi and Osun. He is one of the first Orishas and Osha that any individual receives. He is a hunter and is related to the jail, justice and with the persecuted ones. He is the thought that is able to be transferred to any site or any time to capture or to take something. He is symbolized by the arc and the arrow and is related specially to Oggún. Is considered a magician and wizard. His name comes from the Yoruba Osóssí (Osó: wizard, Sisé: to make work, Sí: for), literally “The one that works with witchcraft”. He was king of Ketu. Oshosi lives with Oggun, unless he is received like Orisha Olorí, meaning, crowning of Oshosi, then he separates from Oggun and receives a hand of snails and his eleke by Itá. Owner of the forest and the hunting, his ota (stone) have to be found there. His number is the 3 and its multiples. His color is blue and his necklaces are made of alternate blue and choral beads or in other blue cases of 7 and 7 yellows. Compares with St. Norbert (June 6th). He is greeted Oshosi Odde Mata!
Oshosi's Family:In Nigeria is considered son of Oduduwa. In Cuba, son of Obbatala and Yemú or Yembó. Was married with Oshun with whom he had a son, Logun Ede.
Diloggún in Oshosi:He speaks by Ellioko (2).
Oshosi's Power Tools:An arc and an arrow and a cage.
Oshosi's Tools:He lives in a metal cauldron, his attributes are metal lances, arrows, arcs, traps, rifle, two dogs, a coat of animal skin, a hat of skin, powder, attributes of fishing, trophies of hunting, jars of deer, a tridente in form of great arrow, three acofá, a small mirror, a smart one, sword, machete, knife, a dove, a bird, etc.
Offerings to Oshosi:He is offered canary seed, mijo, ñame, hunted brandy, anise, tobacco, birds, mandioca (yucca) and vegetables. Goats, roosters, quail, chicken, deer, dove, hens of Guinean, jutías, etc. are immolated to him. Some of his ewes are the cane santa, leg of hen, narcotic, romerillo, siempreviva, anamú, basil, rompesaragüey, atiponlá, peregún, peonía, verdolaga, avocado, guayaba, ceiba, poplar, carob tree, almácigo, wonder, pendejera, higuereta, gallant at night, plum, etc.
Suits of Oshosi:Oshosi gets dressed in a combination of Elegguá and Oggún. The colors are lila or clear purple. Their cap and the purse on their shoulder are made of tiger skin. Oshosi always takes an arc and an arrow.
Dances of Oshosi:When Oshosi comes down, the person always dances simulating to be shooting an arrow with an arc.
To crown Oshosi. Kari-Osha:In order to crown this Osha one have to receive before the Orisha Warriors. During the ceremony one receives the following Oshas and Orishas.
Oshosi, Elegguá, Oggún, Obbatalá, Oke, Yemayá, Shangó, Ogué, Oshún and Oyá.
Paths of Oshosi:* Oshosi Speck* Oshosi Kayoshosi* Oshosi Alé* Oshosi Marundé* Oshosi Ibualámo.* Oshosi Otín* Oshosi Onilé* Oshosi Abedi* Oshosi Bi* Oshosi Gurumujo* Oshosi Odde * Oshosi Odde kills* Oshosi Ode Ode* Oshosi Burú* Oshosi Belujá* Oshosi Bomi* Oshosi Kadina* Oshosi Biladé* Soft Oshosi* Oshosi Tundé * Oshosi Omialé * Oshosi Deyí * Oshosi Of * Oshosi Tofáo * Oshosi Elefaburú.
Osun is an Orisha of the group of the Orisha Oddé (warriors) with Eleguá, Oggún and Oshosi. He is one of the first Orishas that any initiated receives. Osun is an Orisha consecrated by an Awo ni Orunmila. Osun represents the ancestral spirit who is related genealogically to the individual and guides him. He is the watchman, the guardian. Osun along with Eleguá, Oggún and Oshosi symbolizes the ancestors of a specific individual.He isn't crowned and in the case of being son of Ozun then the person receives Obbatalá. He doesn't has paths. One is received when Babalu Ayé is received, that has in the point a dog. Another one is received with Odduduwa, sized at the same size of the owner with a dove with extended wings at the point. Osun keeps a special relation with Orunmila. Orunla leans in Osun, being Osun his cane to obtain the powers of the divination and the real knowledge. This Orisha is not crowned.Osun represents the vertical position of the human being on Earth, by no reason its foundation must lie down nor ease up while his possessor remains alive, if the one that has an Osun, passes away, Osun eases up and must go with his owner. When Osun staggers or falls is a symptom of that his owner is being attacked with witchcraft. Osun is the messenger of Obbatala and Olofin. His number is the 8 and its multiples. Compares with St. Jhon Baptist (24 of June). He is greeted, Maferefún Osun.
Osun's Family:Son of Obbatala and Yemú.
Tools of Osun:He is represented by a silver-plated metal glass that in the superior part can have the figure of a small rooster and inside has a secret load. Its base is solid to maintain him vertical. He does not have attributes and has no necklace or hand of cauries.His color is white, but he also represents all the colors, because Osun is also color, the painting that is made in the floor underneath the pylon in the seat of Osha is named Osun and the one that is made in the head of the Iyabó Osun Lerí.
Offerings to Osun:He is offered Orí (cacao butter), Efún (husk) and Otí (aguardiente). To him are immolated doves and the warrior's animals in general, except rooster or chicken that are his taboo for being himself an akuko (rooster). Their Ewe is such of the other warriors as well as Obbatala's.Crowning Osun. Kari-Osha:In order to crown this Osha one has to receive before the Orisha Warriors, then during the Kari Osha the following Oshas and Orishas are receivede.Osun of extension, Elegguá, Obbatalá, Oke, Yemayá, Shangó, Ogué, Oshún and Oyá.

Kamitian & Yoruba Language
1. Wu (rise) Wu (rise)
2. Ausar (Osiris, father of the gods) Ausa (father)
3. Ere (python/ Serpent) Ere (Python / Serpent)
4. Horise (a great god) Orise (a great god)
5. Sen (group of worshippers) Sen ( to worship)
6. Ged (to chant0 Igede (a chant)
7. Ta (sell / offer) Ta (sell/offer)
8. Sueg (a fool) Suegbe (a fool)
9. On ( living person) One ( living person)
10. Kum (a club) Kumo( a club)
11. Enru (fear / terrible) Eru (fear / terrible
12. Kun / qun (brave man) Ekun (title of a brave man)
13. Win (to be) Wino (to be)
14. Odonit (festival) Odon (festival)
15. Ma or mi (to breath) Mi. (to breathe)
16. Tebu (a town) Tebu (a town)
17. Adumu (a water god) Adumu (a water god)
18. Khu (to kill) Ku (die)
19. Rekha (knowledge} Larikha (knowledge)
20 Hika (evil) Ika (evil)
21 Mhebi (humble) Mebi, humble to ones family
22 Sata (perfect) Santan (perfect)
23 Unas (lake of fire) Una (fire)
24 Tan (complete) Tan (complete)
25 Beru (force of emotion) Beru (fear)
26 Em (smell) Emi (smell)
27 Pa (open) Pa (break open)
28 Bi (to become) Bi (to give birth, to become)
29 Hepi (a water god) Ipi (a water god)
30 Sami (water god) Sami (a water god)
31 Osiri (a water god) Oshiri (a water god)
32 Heqet � Re (frog deity) Ekere (the frog)
33 Feh (to go away) Feh (to blow away)
34 Kot (build) Ko (build)
35 Kot (boat) Oko (boat)
36 Omi (water) Omi (water)
37 Ra (time) Ira (time)
38 Oni (title of Osiris) Oni (title of the king of Ife)
39 Budo (dwelling place) Budo (dwelling place)
40 Dudu (black image of Osiris) Dudu (black person)
41 Un (living person) Una (living person)
42 Ra (possess) Ra (possess/buy)
43 Beka (pray/confess) Be or ka (to pray or confess)
44 Po (many) Po (many/cheap)
45 Horuw (head) middle Egyptian Oruwo (head) (Ijebu)
46 Min (a god) Emin (spirit)
47 Ash (invocation) Ashe (invocation)
48 Aru (mouth) Arun (mouth ) Ilaje
49 Do (river) Odo (river)
50 Do (settlement) Udo (settlement)
51 Shekiri (water god) Shekiri (a water god)
52 Bu (a place) Bu ,a place
53 Khepara (beetle Akpakara (beetle)
54 No (a water god Eno (a water god)
55 Ra -Shu (light after darkness Uran-shu (the light of the moon
56 Run-ka (spirit name) Oruko (name)
57 Deb/dib to pierce Dibi (to pierce)
58 Maat (goddess of justice Mate (goddess of justice)
59 Aru (rise) Ru (rise up)
60 Fa (carry) Fa (pull)
61 Kaf (pluck) Ka (pluck)
62 Bu bi (evil place) Bubi (evil place)
63 In- n (negation In-n (negation)
64 Iset (a water god) Ise (a water god)
65 Shabu (watcher) Ashonbo (watcher)
66 Semati (door keeper) Sema (lock/shut the door)
67 Khenti amenti (big words of Osiris Yenti � yenti (big, very big)
68 Ma (to know) Ma (to know)
69 Bebi, a son of osiris) Ube, a god
70 Tchatcha chief (they examined the death to see if they tricked tsatsa (a game of tricks, gambling )
71 Ren( animal foot) Ren (to walk)
72 Ka (rest) Ka (rest/tired)
73 Mu (water) Mu (drink water)
74 Abi (against) Ubi (against / impediment)
75 Reti (to beseech) Retin (to listen)
76 Hir (praise) Yiri (praise)
77 Ta(spread out) Ta (spread out)
78 Kurud (round) Kurudu (round)
79 Ak � male Ako (male)
80 Se � to create Se (to create)
81 Hoo (rejoice) Yo (rejoice)
82 Kamwr (black) Kuru (extremely black
83 Omitjener (deep water) Omijen (deep water)
84 Nen, the primeval water mother) Nene (mother
85 Ta (land) Ita (land junction)
86 Horiwo (head) Oriwo (head)
87 Ro (talk) Ro (to think)
88 Kurubu (round) Kurubu (deep and round)
89 Penka (divide) Kpen (divide)
90 Ma-su (to mould) Ma or su (to mould)
91 Osa (time) Osa (time)
92 Osa (tide) Osa ( tide)
93 Fare (wrap) Fari (wrap)
94 Kom (complete) Kon (complete)
95 Edjo (cobra) Edjo (cobra)
96 Didi (red fruit) Diden (red)
97 Ba (soul) Oba (king) soul of a people
98 Ke (hill) Oke( hill
99 Anubis (evil deity) Onubi (evil person)
100 Kan (one: Middle Egyptian) Okan one)
101 Nam (water god) Inama (water god)
Some of the earliest examples of sophisticated sculpture in sub-Saharan Africa come from the Nok culture. We do not know what the people called themselves, so the culture was named after the town of Nok where the first object was found. The fired clay or terracotta sculptures range in size from small pendant to life-size figures. Nok is an iron age culture that has been dated between 900 B.C. and 200 A.D. Archaelogical artifacts have been found in Nigeria, primarily to the north of the Niger-Benue River confluence and below the Jos escarpment. According to some accounts, based on artistic similarities between early Yoruba art forms and Nok forms, there may be connections between Nok culture and contemporary Yoruba peoples. Nok culture terracottas are heralded as the prime evidence of pre-colonial civilization in sub-Saharan Africa, and it is suggested that the society eventually evolved into the later Yoruba kingdom of Ife. Later brass and terracotta sculptures of the Ife and Benin cultures show significant similarities with those found at Nok.

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